Model pengembangan modal manusia kualifikasi jenjang lima di program diploma tiga usaha perjalanan wisata - hijau

Silitonga, Parlugutan (2013) Model pengembangan modal manusia kualifikasi jenjang lima di program diploma tiga usaha perjalanan wisata - hijau. Doctoral thesis, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

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Abstract

As of 1740, grand tour was popular in Great Britain. The grand tour is a pleasant journey during yearly vacation aiming to enhance educational and cultural activities. According to Pitana and Diarta (2009), such activities, in Indonesia had been held by Vereeneging Toeristen Verkeer (VTV). VTV acted as tourism promotion board by then in Batavia. Tourism has been flourishing in Indonesia since Pacific Area Travel Association conference was held in Jakarta in 1974. According to secretariat of Association of South East Asian Countries (ASEAN), in 2009 there were 65 millions tourist to these area and Indonesia had received 9.80 percent out of it. To cope with this growth, human resources development, skilled workforce in tours and travel for fifth level qualification is needed. This study is focus on problem solving in curriculum compliance for fifth level, competency compliance of graduates of diploma three in tours and travel, compliance of certification body and to design appropriate model of human capital development for fifth level. This study has four main objectives that include the following (1) to analyze the compliance of core curriculum against competency standard of fifth level ; (2) to analyze the compliance of alumni competency against fifth level of national qualification-framework; (3) to analyze the suitable type of professional certification body to achieve fifth level for diploma three in tours and travel; (4) to design the model of human capital development for fifth level of national qualification-framework (NQF). According to Becker (1962), the human capital can be developed by education and training. He then put a stress on the benefit of the on the job training in industry and off the job training in campus to gain the human capital. However, Shimer (2005) indicated that such training and education shall be in compliance with the needs of end-users. Hence, prior to that finding, Schultz (1961) had initiated to express that the rapid growth in American economy are mainly backed up by effective human capital development. The further way out to develop human capital, International Labour Organization in 1999 had declared that national qualification framework is the solution. The government has realized this idea by issuing the President Regulation Number 8 in 2012 on NQF. The methodology of this study consist of quantitative and qualitative ones. The quantitave by applying Spearman corelation analysis, while the qualitative one by analytic network Process(ANP) and soft system methodology. The secondary data from seven tourism college were collected. Prior to this research, the focus group discussion (FGD) is held with 14 persons of end-user from tours and travel, tour guide, and tour leader association. The purpose of this FGD are to find-out the needs for alumni of associate degree in tours and travel, the number of mandatory competency units and the possibility to earn fifth level in line with NQF. At the second stage, for the second and the third objective, there are 44 lecturers and 78 alumni of the said seven tourism college as respondents. The research units and the number of respondents are selected purposively that able to represent 26 private tourism college throughout Indonesia, aiming to save time and money as well. At the third stage, individual depth interview is conducted with 8 person of experts from vocational, standardization, certification, ministry of tourism, education, labor and certification body by using pairwise comparison questioner. Afterward, the soft system methodology of root definition, rich picture, focus group discussion and face validation were held to design the model. The results of the study showed that curriculum are not comply with fifth level.There are plenty of credits that can be omitted and replaced by the ones that able to build fifth level and able to follow the current trend of green tourism. The compliance of alumni’s competencies to fifth level were not achieved by alumni as the gap range from 25 to 92.8% of the non-accredited and A accreditation. In terms of responsibility assigned to fresh graduate of diploma three, there were only 70 percent gained by the alumni of A accreditation college, while others are far left behind of this achievement. The first party certification body, during the learning process is needed and then at the end of fifth semester, the college can collaborate with third party certification body. The result of corelation rank Spearman is -0.104 (Sign.=0.535). It means that there is a very low corelation between accreditation status and cooperation with certification body. The reults of ANP are priority strategies. These priority strategies are the input for soft system methodology. The first is root definition, that the scheme of certification system by involving student and government instances in tourism college that implemented green- tours and travel curriculum to attain competent fifth level output by consistency, impartiality, effective and holistic management. Having this root definition defined, the rich picture was drawn to reflect the wholeness of the system with the flow of reference to implement the scheme certification system. Afterward, the FGD with the 6 person of experts was conducted to figure-out the elements as idle conditions that actors can take role individually and jointly in strong or weak level of relationship. The last step was face validation method with two experts to assure that changes as proposed, already done properly. The validated model include all stakeholders interrelation, coordination and their individual and mutual roles. The parties consist of student, tourism college, ministry of education, national education standard authority, national accreditation body, ministry of tourism, ministry of labor, national certification body and end-user. Each element shall take part in accordance with their individual functions and tasks to coordinate each other, initiated by Ministry of Tourism in development of certification scheme for fifth level in green-tours and travel. The implication of this study is to issue regulation in support to its implementation. While Ministry of Labor is induced to issue guidance in implementation of recruitment and remuneration based on qualification. Due to limitation of this study, it is also suggested to conduct a further research for the next level. The next level is also categorized as skilled profession and needed in ASEAN free trade area in 2015 and beyond.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Diploma-tiga, kompetensi, kualifikasi, jenjang-lima, model Diploma three, fifth-level, model, qualificationframework,Analitic Network Process, ANP.
Subjects: Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia
Depositing User: Staff-8 Perpustakaan -
Date Deposited: 25 Feb 2014 08:02
Last Modified: 26 Dec 2019 06:45
URI: http://repository.sb.ipb.ac.id/id/eprint/1645

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