Peran lisensi forest law enforcement governance and trade (flegt) dalam peningkatan daya saing ekspor furnitur kayu indonesia di pasar uni eropa

Lubis, Mariana (2018) Peran lisensi forest law enforcement governance and trade (flegt) dalam peningkatan daya saing ekspor furnitur kayu indonesia di pasar uni eropa. Doctoral thesis, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

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Abstract

International trade in timber products including wood furniture in the past few decades has always been linked to the issue of illegal logging (IL), where the industry is the cause of global forest and environmental damage. In this regard, to maintain forest and environmental sustainability, consumer countries seek to eradicate IL through trade arrangements. The EU is a collection of the main consumer countries of world wood furniture which in 2003 established an action plan for Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT), which is a multidimensional EU plan to overcome IL, through the implementation of regulation No. 2173/2005 concerning the establishment of a FLEGT licensing scheme to import wood to the European community. The policy steps at the core of the FLEGT action plan are: (1) Voluntary Partnership Agreements in the context of FLEGT (Voluntary Partnership Agreement on FLEGT - FLEGT VPA) and (2) EU Timber Regulation (EUTR). FLEGT VPA is a legally binding bilateral trade agreement between timber producing countries (producers) and the EU to work together to stop IL. Whereas the EUTR is a prohibition on trading timber illegally harvested on the EU market, so that every EU importer must carry out due diligence on the products they import. The FLEGT VPA agreement is directed at implementing the FLEGT licensing scheme. For this reason, producing countries that make agreements with the EU must get recognition from the EU that the country has carried out IL eradication, so that they get the right to issue FLEGT licenses. With licenses, timber products from producer countries can enter the EU market without the need for due diligence. This is a competitiveness for the licensing country. Indonesia is one of the 15 FLEGT-VPA countries. The FLEGT VPA agreement between Indonesia and the EU began in 2007 where the Timber Legality Verification System (SVLK) which is a forest certification system and guarantees Indonesian timber legality is the basis of the agreement to obtain a FLEGT license. After going through various stages of negotiation and assessment of the SVLK, the EU acknowledged and Indonesia obtained the license to issue licenses on 15 November 2016. Thus, since 15 November 2016 every export of Indonesian wood furniture to the EU was accompanied by a FLEGT license so EU importers did not need to do due diligence. , as they must do if they import wood furniture from other countries. Until now, Indonesia is the only FLEGT-VPA country that has obtained a license from the EU. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent of business actors' readiness and the role of FLEGT licenses in increasing the competitiveness of Indonesian wood furniture exports on the EU market. This research is a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods using the Diamond Porter Model, Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Gravity Model. The data used are primary data and secondary data. Primary data was obtained from conducting an online survey of 459 Indonesian wood furniture exporters, the results of which were confirmed to the parties through the implementation of Focus Group Discussions (FGD). While secondary data is obtained from various sources such as the UN Comtrade and World Bank. The results showed that Indonesian wood furniture businessmen were ready to use the FLEGT license, judging from three things: (1) Business actors' knowledge of the FLEGT-VPA agreement and FLEGT license, where almost all business people knew about FLEGT-VPA and FLEGT licenses so make it easier for them to implement licensing schemes (2) Number of timber legality certified business actors (S-LK). S-LK is a requirement to be able to export using a FLEGT license. Thus more and more business people who have S-LK means that more and more can export to the EU using FLEGT licenses. As Table 16, the number of business actors who have certified timber legality is quite large, namely 1,513 business actors (81.60%) out of a total of 1,854 business actors (3) Proficiency of businesses using FLEGT licenses. The majority of businesses have been proficient in using FLEGT licenses, as evidenced by their smooth export to the EU using FLEGT licenses. However, there are still business people who have not been proficient in using licenses so that their exports to the EU are hampered. This happened partly because of an error in filling out the license documents so that there was a difference with the contents of other export documents. This difference makes the authorities in the EU request clarification from the authorities in Indonesia. The solution requires time so that the goods arrive late. Indeed, in the use of the FLEGT license since 15 November 2016, Indonesia and the EU did not provide a transition period; which should be used by business actors as a period of adaptation (learning) to the use of FLEGT licenses. In this regard, to overcome various problems in using the FLEGT license, Indonesia and the EU are currently implementing a 'mini action plan'. The FLEGT license increases the competitiveness of Indonesian wood furniture exports in the EU market because licensing of products exported to the EU does not need to be subject to further due diligence by importers. Thus, licenses play a role in providing convenience and speed in importing for importers. Equally important, the license also guarantees legality certainty for EU importers, so there is no longer a concern that imported products come from illegal sources, which can violate the requirements required by the EU. The results of the analysis of the effect of licenses on the export value of Indonesian wood furniture with a 4-digit HS Code (9401 and 9403) which is an aggregation of 6-digit HS Code, are positively significant. However, against the 6 digit HS Code (940161, 940169, 940350 and 940360) the effect of the license is not significant. This shows that export value is related to demand where many factors influence it; so in addition to the existence of licenses that provide convenience and guarantee legality for EU importers, demand is also influenced by other factors such as the extent to which the marketing strategies and activities carried out include 4P (Product, Price, Place and Promotion).

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: daya saing ekspor, industri furnitur kayu, lisensi FLEGT, pasar, Diamond Porter European Union market, export competitiveness, FLEGT license, wood furniture industry.
Subjects: Manajemen Agribisnis
Depositing User: SB-IPB Library
Date Deposited: 21 Feb 2019 02:49
Last Modified: 21 Feb 2019 02:49
URI: http://repository.sb.ipb.ac.id/id/eprint/3296

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